The Croatian letters: č, ć, dž, đ, š, ž, lj and nj

The Croatian letters

In this post we'll deal with the pronunciation and usage of those unfamiliar letters in the Croatian alphabet which beginners to the Croatian language often find confusing: č, ć, dž, đ, š, ž, lj, nj.

One letter, two characters: nj, lj and

You might have noticed that some of these weird Croatian letters consist of two familiar letters written together. There are three such letters, namely:

  • : pronounced like ni in “minion”
  • : sounds like lli in “million”
  • : like j in “joy” (only pronounced slightly harder)

It's important to mention that each of nj, lj and are single letters comprising two characters and not two individual letters.

Consequently, the word (summer) only has 4 letters. The same principle applies for example with the words (field) which has 4 letters, or (pocket) which has 3 letters.


Spot the difference: čć and đ

One thing causes a fair amount of confusion with foreigners learning to speak Croatian (and occasionally native Croatian speakers*) is the difference between č and ć, and between and đ.

The letters č and ć

In Croatian, č is referred to as (hard č), while ć is a (soft ć). The main difference between them is how hard the sound is pronounced.

  • sounds like ch in “charm” or “match”.
  • There’s no exact English equivalent to , but the closest would be the sound of t in British English “tune” (pronounced ty)

The letters dž and đ

The distinction is pretty much the same between tvrdo dž and meko đ:

  • is pronounced like j in “joy”, only slightly harder
  • Again there’s no exact English counterpart to . It is similar to d in British English “duke” or American English “schedule” (pronounced dy)

And from an anatomical viewpoint ...

  • To produce the “soft” sounds (ć, đ) your tongue should be placed right behind your front teeth
  • To produce the “hard” sounds (č, dž) your tongue should be further back along the palette

*While it's important for students to learn the difference, in fact nowadays many Croatian native speakers make little or no distinction in their pronunction of č and ć, or dž and đ.


Last but not least: š and ž

In the end, to make your life a little easier, there’s only one version of š and ž!

  • : sounds like sh in “shoe”
  • : equals to s in “measure”. Yes, it’s that simple!

Exercise: Try pronouncing these difficult Croatian words!

– currency exchange office

– swing

– bat

– repetition

– pastry shop

– to crouch

– toothpick

– interesting

– capital of Slovenia

– library

– to remember

– event

– solid

– notebook

– railway

– flower shop

– Thursday

– squats

– thin

– hard-working

– Monday

– eggplant/aubergine

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